# Access Control Identifier (ACI)¶

The Access Control Identifier (ACI) part of an ACL entry specifies the user or group for which the entry applies. Group identifiers are distinguished be the prefix “group:”. For example, “group:accounting”.

There are two special identifiers, “anonymous”, and “anyone”, which are explained below. The meaning of other identifiers usually depends on the authorization mechanism being used (selected by --with-auth at compile time, defaulting to Unix).

## anonymous and anyone¶

With any authorization mechanism, two special identifiers are defined. The identifier anonymous refers to the anonymous, or unauthenticated user. The identifier anyone refers to all users, including the anonymous user.

Both anonymous and anyone may commonly be used with the post right p to allow message insertion to mailboxes.

## Kerberos vs. Unix Authorization¶

The Cyrus IMAP server comes with four authorization mechanisms, one is compatible with Unix-style (/etc/passwd) authorization, one for use with Kerberos 4, one for use with Kerberos 5, and one for use with an external authorization process (ptloader) which can interface with other group databases (e.g. AFS PTS groups, LDAP Groups, etc).

Note

Authentication !== Authorization

Note that authorization is not the same thing as authentication. Authentication is the act of proving who you are. Authorization is the act of determining what rights you have. Authentication is discussed in the Login Authentication part of this document.

### Unix Authorization¶

In the Unix authorization mechanism, ACIs are either a valid userid or the string group: followed by a group listed in /etc/group. Thus:

root                Refers to the user root
group:staff         Refers to the group staff


It is also possible to use unix groups with users authenticated through a non-/etc/passwd backend. Note that using unix groups in this way (without associated /etc/passwd entries) is not recommended.

Note

Cyrus requires the getgrent(3) POSIX sysctl. As such, NSS needs to be configured to have the groups available, one of which includes “files”, but could also include “ldap”.

NSS augmentations, such as nss_ldap, pam_ldap or sssd may be used to provide Cyrus access to group information via NSS.

### Kerberos Authorization¶

Using the Kerberos authorization mechanism, ACIs are of the form:

$principal.*$instance*@*$realm* If $instance is omitted, it defaults to the null string. If \$realm is omitted, it defaults to the local realm.

The file /etc/krb.equiv contains mappings between Kerberos principals. The file contains zero or more lines, each containing two fields. Any identity matching the first field of a line is changed to the second identity during canonicalization. For example, a line in /etc/krb.equiv of:

bovik@REMOTE.COM bovik


will cause the identity bovik@REMOTE.COM to be treated as if it were the local identity bovik.

### Alternative Authorization¶

A site may wish to write their own authorization mechanism, perhaps to implement a local group mechanism. If it does so (by implementing an auth_[whatever] PTS module), it will dictate its own form and meaning of identifiers.